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A Study of 85,000 Cases in India Finds Children Do Spread the Virus

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An ambitious new study of nearly 85,000 coronavirus cases in India and nearly 600,000 of their contacts, published Wednesday in the journal Science, offers important insights not just for India, but for other low- and middle-income countries.

India now has more than six million cases, second only to the United States.

Among the findings of the study: The median hospital stay before death from Covid-19, the illness caused by the coronavirus, was five days in India, compared with two weeks in the United States, possibly because of limited access to quality care. And the trend in increasing deaths with age seemed to drop off after age 65 — perhaps because Indians who live past that age tend to be relatively wealthy and have access to good health care.

The contact tracing study also found that children of all ages can become infected with the coronavirus and spread it to others — offering compelling evidence on one of the most divisive questions about the virus.

“The claims that children have no role in the infection process are certainly not correct,” said Dr. Joseph Lewnard, an epidemiologist at the University of California, Berkeley, who led the study. “There’s, granted, not an enormous number of kids in the contact tracing data, but those who are in it are certainly transmitting.”

And the report confirmed, as other studies have, that a small number of people are responsible for seeding a vast majority of new infections.

Though its overall total of cases is huge, the per capita number of cases reported daily in India — and in many other low-income countries, including in Africa — is lower than in Spain, France or even the United States. And its number of deaths has not yet topped 100,000 — which has surprised some scientists.

The study focused on two southern Indian states, Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu, which together have a population of about 128 million, and represent two of the five Indian states with the most cases. They also have among the most sophisticated health care systems in the country.

Contact tracers reached more than three million contacts of the 435,539 cases in these two states, although this still did not represent the full set of contacts. The researchers analyzed data for the 575,071 contacts for whom test information was available.

The data revealed that the people infected first — known as index cases — were more likely to be male and older than their contacts. That may be because men are more likely to be out in situations where they might be infected, more likely to become symptomatic and get tested if they do become infected, or perhaps more likely to respond to contact tracers’ calls for information, said Dr. Lewnard. They also found that infected people tend to spread the virus to those of similar ages.

Credit...Erin Schaff/The New York Times

In media appearances and talks with investors, Pfizer’s chief executive nearly always mentions a word that most of his competitors shy away from: October. “Right now, our model — our best case — predicts that we will have an answer by the end of October,” Dr. Albert Bourla told the “Today” show this month.

His statements have put his company squarely in the sights of President Trump, who has made no secret of his desire for positive vaccine news to boost his chances on Election Day.

By repeating a date that flies in the face of most scientific predictions, Dr. Bourla is making a high-stakes gamble. If Pfizer puts out a vaccine before it has been thoroughly tested — something the company has pledged it will not do — it could pose a major threat to public safety. But if Americans see the vaccine as having been rushed in order to placate Mr. Trump, many may refuse to get the shot.

But “an answer by the end of October” is not the same as having a vaccine then.

When Dr. Bourla referred to a “conclusive readout” next month, a company spokeswoman said, he meant that it’s possible the outside board of experts monitoring the trial would have by that date found promising signs that the vaccine works.

In public interviews, government health officials have refuted the October date. Both Dr. Moncef Slaoui, the chief scientific adviser to Operation Warp Speed, the federal effort that has awarded billions of dollars to vaccine makers, and Dr. Anthony S. Fauci, the nation’s top infectious disease doctor, have said October was unlikely.

Pfizer’s leading competitors in the vaccine race, Moderna and AstraZeneca, have been more vague about timing, saying they expect something before the end of the year. In a recent interview, Moderna’s chief executive, Stéphane Bancel, said: “October is possible, because very few things in life are impossible.” The better word, he said, is “unlikely.”

Credit...Anna Moneymaker for The New York Times

Treasury Secretary Steven Mnuchin said Wednesday he would make Speaker Nancy Pelosi a counteroffer to the new Democrats’ $2.2 trillion stimulus plan, as part of a last-ditch effort to break a stalemate on another round of coronavirus relief before lawmakers leave Washington to campaign.

After a 50-minute phone call with Ms. Pelosi on Tuesday, Mr. Mnuchin said he was giving talks “one more serious try,” and met with Ms. Pelosi at the Capitol Wednesday afternoon. In an interview before that on CNBC, Mr. Mnuchin suggested that the measure he was prepared to offer would be around $1.5 trillion, similar to a bipartisan framework a group of lawmakers presented earlier this month — one Ms. Pelosi and her top lieutenants rejected as inadequate.

He said it would include liability protections for schools and businesses, more economic impact payments, support for airlines and relief money for emergency workers in states.

“More fiscal response will help the economy,” Mr. Mnuchin said.

Signaling their pessimism, House Democrats prepared to approve their $2.2 trillion measure — which was all but guaranteed to die in the Republican-led Senate — as early as Wednesday in the absence of a bipartisan agreement. Representative Steny H. Hoyer of Maryland, the majority leader, privately told House Democrats in a conference call that he intended to hold a vote on the bill if the call between Ms. Pelosi and Mr. Mnuchin did not go well.

“We are still at this last minute, and I stress at this last minute, hopeful that we could get a bill,” Mr. Hoyer said, adding that he hoped Mr. Mnuchin brought Ms. Pelosi a “substantive offer.”

“Getting an agreement is our major objective, we hope we can do that,” Mr. Hoyer added. “But we’re not going to go home without telling the American people ‘this is what we’re prepared to do.’”

Democratic leaders appeared disinclined to make many concessions. Ms. Pelosi, in the private call, counseled Democrats that “we’re closer to the inauguration of Joe Biden right now, so we will have our moment,” according to two people familiar with her remarks who disclosed them on condition of anonymity.

“As soon as we get through this we’ll start writing the next bill,” she added.

Republicans have already called the Democrats’ $2.2 trillion recovery bill unacceptable. Representative Steve Scalise of Louisiana, the second-ranking Republican in the House, said on Wednesday that the measure is “not a bipartisan bill. That only sets us back further.”

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Officials in New York City continued to scramble on Wednesday to quell growing clusters of the coronavirus in several neighborhoods in Brooklyn and Queens, as the seven-day average rate of positive test results citywide ticked slightly upward to 1.46 percent.

On Tuesday, Mayor Bill de Blasio reported a significant uptick in the citywide daily positivity rate, driven in part by a rise in nine ZIP codes in Brooklyn and Queens. Cases continued to rise in most of those ZIP codes, he said Wednesday, which include some predominantly Orthodox Jewish communities.

Still, Mr. de Blasio said the daily positivity rate had dropped to .94 percent, after the city had reported on Tuesday a 3.25 percent rate, the highest it had been since June. It was not immediately clear what specifically explained the fluctuation in the numbers, but a spokesman for the health department said Wednesday the rate could be influenced by the total number of tests each day.

The seven-day average is a stronger measure of the spread of the virus over time, officials have said.

The mayor has said that he will automatically shut down public school classrooms — which are all slated to be open by Thursday — if the test positivity rate exceeds 3 percent over a seven-day rolling average. On Tuesday, he said the seven-day average was 1.38 percent.

“We were the epicenter,” Mr. de Blasio said Wednesday. “We fought back. Testing was crucial. We have a problem now, we’re going to overcome the problem. I have no doubt we’re going to beat it back.”

Officials said the city on Wednesday was sending 400 police officers, 300 members of the city’s test and trace program and 250 other employees to the target neighborhoods to distribute masks, step up outreach and education about the virus and crack down on people and businesses violating public health rules.

“Almost 1,000 city employees will be out in these target ZIP codes,” the mayor said.

The city is also trying to ramp up testing in the neighborhoods.

The figures come at a particularly crucial moment, as the city tries to fully reopen public schools this week for in-person learning to hundreds of thousands of students in addition to resuming indoor dining on Wednesday.

Shortly afterward, Gov. Andrew M. Cuomo said a major priority for the state is managing 20 hot-spot ZIP codes, including areas in New York City and the Mid-Hudson region.

Those ZIP codes made up 23 percent of all cases in the state, he said, but only represent 6 percent of the overall population.

“It’s still those hotspot ZIP codes that we have to watch because if you don’t control a cluster, a cluster becomes community spread,” he said.

The governor emphasized that local officials should focus on enforcing compliance with safety rules before activities such as indoor dining in New York City were scaled back, noting that closing down establishments would cause “significant economic damage.”

“We have escalating actions that we take, but do step one first: Enforce the mask compliance, issue a ticket,” he said. “And if that doesn’t work, yes, then we’re going to have to take more serious actions.”

Credit...Mark Humphrey/Associated Press

The N.F.L. has moved the Pittsburgh Steelers-Tennessee Titans game — originally scheduled for Sunday — to next week to allow more time to test members of the Titans team for the virus. On Tuesday, three Titans players and five employees tested positive. And in a separate testing, a fourth player tested positive as well, according to NFL network.

The outbreak is the first in the league since the beginning of the 2020 season played during the pandemic.

The league announced its decision in a statement and said the game, originally scheduled for noon local time on Sunday in Nashville, had been moved “to allow additional time for further daily Covid-19 testing and to ensure the health and safety of players, coaches and game day personnel.” The league said it would announce the new date and time for the game as soon as it could.

The Titans halted in-person activities on Tuesday after learning that members of the organization tested positive for the virus. The team has not disclosed the names of those who tested positive.

Another employee, the outside linebackers coach Shane Bowen, did not accompany the team to Minnesota for Sunday’s game against the Vikings in accordance with Covid-19 protocol, which forbids anyone who tests positive or has been exposed to someone who has from traveling.

The Minnesota Vikings, who hosted the Titans on Sunday, had not received any positive results as of Tuesday morning, they said in a statement, but also shut down in-person activities.

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More than 60 percent of households with children in the United States reported serious financial problems — including struggles to afford medical care, depletion of household savings and difficulty paying credit card and other debts — during the coronavirus pandemic, according to a new poll.

Black and Latino households with children bear the brunt of the hardships. Of the Latino households who responded, 86 percent reported these difficulties; in Black households, 66 percent reported them. In white households, the number hovers around 50 percent.

The immense differences were surprising, as they came after federal and state governments invested heavily in programs for communities disproportionately affected by the pandemic, said Robert Blendon, a director of the study behind the report and a professor at the Harvard School of Public Health.

“So much money was spent to put a cushion under households,” Dr. Blendon said, adding that because of this, “the expenditures should have lowered for everybody.” But, he said, “the numbers of people in trouble, that is the shock.”

The poll, conducted by NPR, the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation and the Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, surveyed more than 3,400 adults, 1,000 of whom were living with children under the age of 18, between July 1 and Aug. 3.

Now that some government measures to support households financially during the pandemic are waning, experts are concerned that the financial devastation could be worse than what the survey shows, said Julie Morita, the executive vice president of the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation. Now, Dr. Morita said, “households are probably suffering just as much if not more,” leaving Black and Latino communities especially “unprotected.”

The survey highlights other challenges faced by households with children during the pandemic. Over a third of them reported “serious problems” keeping children’s education going. Six in 10 said that an adult in the home lost their job, was furloughed or had wages or hours cut. And in nine out of 10 households where someone was diagnosed with Covid-19, they faced “serious financial problems” in addition to difficulty caring for their children.

These responses, Dr. Blendon said, show that a high number of households — particularly Black and Latino ones — will face substantial long-term financial effects from the pandemic.

“It’s a very large number of people who can’t pay the basics,” Dr. Blendon said. “You have unbelievably vulnerable people over the next six months.”

Credit...Mike Hutchings/Reuters

South Africa will begin allowing some international tourists to enter the country on Thursday, for the first time since a national lockdown took effect in March.

But in a blow to hopes of reviving the country’s key tourism sector, at least a dozen high-risk European countries — those whose infection rate exceeds that of South Africa, including Britain, France, Russia, Iceland and the Netherlands, as well as the United States and most of Latin America — will remain on a no-fly list.

South Africa has reported 672,572 cases of the virus, including 16,667 deaths, the highest official death toll on the continent. But the infection rate has slowed dramatically in recent weeks, and President Cyril Ramaphosa eased restrictions this month.

“We have arrived at a point where the infection rate has started to go down, and we believe we can now accommodate the process towards a return to a more normal side of business in South Africa,” Foreign Minister Naledi Pandor said in a televised address on Sept. 30, noting that the developments had occurred “in the context of a new normal.”

The list of permitted countries will be reviewed every two weeks, Ms. Pandor said.

The announcement comes ahead of what would normally be the beginning of a new tourism season — when colder weather in the northern hemisphere starts luring up to 10 million foreigners annually to the country’s pristine beaches and luxurious game safaris.

Many of those visitors come from countries with major outbreaks, including Brazil, the United States and Britain, or countries otherwise on the banned list, such as the Netherlands. Several major airlines, including British Airways and KLM, had said they were planning to resume daily flights to South Africa as restrictions eased, and had started taking bookings.

No African countries were on the list, and leisure travelers will be permitted from countries deemed “low risk.”

Visitors will be required to have travel insurance, and to present a negative P.C.R. test performed no more than 72 hours prior to arrival. Business travelers, diplomats and those with critical skills will be permitted to enter starting Thursday, even if they are coming from countries considered high-risk.

Border closures and national lockdowns have devastated Africa’s $39 billion tourism industry. In South Africa, tourism employs some quarter of a million people directly, although more than double that number of jobs remain threatened by the lockdown, according to Tourism South Africa.

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SEOUL, South Korea — North Korea has discovered “faults” in its anti-epidemic measures, its state news media reported on Wednesday, days after the country apologized for killing a South Korean official found adrift near the disputed western sea border with South Korea.

North Korea’s leader, Kim Jong-un, convened the politburo of his ruling Workers’ Party on Tuesday to review its fight against the coronavirus. In its report on the meeting, the North’s official Korean Central News Agency did not mention the killing of the South Korean official, but said that the North’s officials had discussed some faults in the country’s antivirus efforts, such as “self-complacency, carelessness, irresponsibility and slackness.”

This is not the first time that North Korea has admitted to falling short in its antivirus campaign. In late August, Mr. Kim convened the party’s politburo and its Executive Policy Council to discuss “shortcomings” and “defects” in its battle against Covid-19.

Both the United States military and South Korean officials said that North Korea had given its soldiers “shoot to kill” orders to prevent smugglers and others illegally crossing its borders in order to prevent the spread of the coronavirus. The South’s National Intelligence Agency told lawmakers that the North issued such orders in August.

On Sept. 21, an official from a South Korean government ship monitoring fishing near the disputed western sea border went missing. He was found adrift in North Korean waters a day later and shot and killed by the crew on a North Korean patrol ship that considered him an “illegal intruder,” according to a message North Korea sent to the South on Friday.

South Korea accused the North of killing its official despite his expressing a desire to defect and burning his body for fear of Covid-19. But the North said the official did not express any such intentions. It said that it had burned only his flotation device and that his body had been lost at sea.

Global roundup

Credit...Alexander Zemlianichenko Jr/Associated Press

Early clinical trials have been completed on a second Russian vaccine, a health official said Wednesday, moving it closer to registration under the Russian approach of approving vaccines for emergency use before beginning late-stage trials to determine whether they are effective.

Early trials provide information about safety, though rare side effects may go undetected until much larger late-stage trials are conducted. The later trials, known as Phase 3, are the only means of determining whether a vaccine actually protects against the coronavirus.

Russia registered its first Covid-19 vaccine — one based on common cold viruses — in August, and is now offering a small number of doses outside of trials to people at elevated risk of infection, like health care workers. Western vaccine experts criticized the Russian approach as potentially dangerous.

Anna Papova, the head of Rospotrebnadzor, a Russian agency regulating health care, said on Wednesday that researchers had completed early clinical trials of a different vaccine, based on proteins that mimic those in the coronavirus.

Ms. Papova defended the Russian regulatory approach, saying that it drew on a long history of Soviet vaccine development. “The Russian vaccines deserve absolutely no criticism,” she said.

Her agency said earlier this month that it planned to register the second vaccine, made by Vektor, a Siberian laboratory that studied biological weapons during the Cold War, by Oct. 15. A third Russian vaccine, made by the Chumakov Institute in Moscow and based on inactivated coronavirus, is now in early-stage trials.

In other developments around the world:

  • South Korea said on Wednesday that it would impose a fine of up to $85 on anyone caught without a mask in high-risk areas like outdoor gatherings and public transportation, starting on Oct. 13. As people in the country began on Wednesday to celebrate Chuseok, a major holiday that runs through the weekend, health officials reported 113 new cases, the highest daily tally in five days. Tens of millions of South Koreans are traveling for Chuseok and officials fear that holiday gatherings could create new vectors of infection.

  • The Czech Republic and Slovakia have declared states of emergency to deal with rising cases. In the Czech Republic, the order comes into effect on Monday. “If we don’t do anything, we will end up in a situation when all our hospital beds will be filled with Covid patients,” said Health Minister Roman Prymula. Slovakia’s state of emergency begins Thursday and will be in place for 45 days,Prime Minister Igor Matovic said on Facebook. The country will also evaluate what happens when residents travel for All Saints Day, on Nov. 1, a national holiday and busy travel time.

  • Chancellor Angela Merkel of Germany warned citizens that infections will probably rise and called for vigilance. “I appeal to you all, follow the rules that will be in effect in the next while,” she said in a prepared speech during a budget debate. “We have a difficult time ahead of us with autumn and winter approaching.” Ms. Merkel and state governors agreed on Tuesday to lower ceilings on group gatherings and to fine bar and restaurant owners and other businesses who are lax about verifying patrons’ contact information. The country reported 1,798 new infections on Tuesday, more than its recent average of more than 1,600 a day.

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Trump and Biden on a Coronavirus Vaccine

President Trump claimed that a vaccine for the coronavirus would be available to the public “soon,” while Joseph R. Biden Jr. expressed concern over the safety of any rapidly approved vaccine.

“He puts pressure and disagrees with his own scientists.” “But you’re saying, Senator Harris is saying you can’t trust the scientists.” “No, no, no, no — you can trust the scientists. She didn’t say that. You can trust —” “She said the public health experts, quote, will be muzzled, will be suppressed.” “Yes — well, that’s what he’s going to try to do, but there’s millions of scientists, there’s thousands of scientists out there, like here at this great hospital, that don’t work for him. Their job doesn’t depend on him. That’s not — they’re the people, and by the way —” “I spoke to the scientists that are in charge —” “— and by the way —” ”— they will have the vaccine very soon.” “Do you believe for a moment what he’s telling you, in light of all the lies he’s told you about the whole issue relating to Covid? He still hasn’t even acknowledged that he knew this was happening, knew how dangerous it was going to be back in February, and he didn’t even tell you.”

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President Trump claimed that a vaccine for the coronavirus would be available to the public “soon,” while Joseph R. Biden Jr. expressed concern over the safety of any rapidly approved vaccine.CreditCredit...Mark Makela for The New York Times

The first presidential debate between President Trump and Joseph R. Biden Jr. unraveled into an ugly melee Tuesday, as Mr. Trump hectored and interrupted Mr. Biden nearly every time he spoke and the former vice president denounced the president as a “clown” and told him to “shut up.”

During the chaotic, 90-minute event in Cleveland, Mr. Trump defended his administration’s response to the coronavirus pandemic and deflected blame, referring to the virus as the “China plague.”

“It’s China’s fault,” he said of the crisis. “It should have never happened.”

In Beijing on Wednesday, a spokesman for China’s foreign ministry said the accusations leveled against the country during the debate were “groundless and untenable.”

Mr. Trump also voiced impatience with a range of public-health restrictions, while Mr. Biden criticized the president for being dismissive of measures like mask wearing and social distancing.

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transcript

Trump Downplays Masks and Mocks Biden for Wearing Them

President Trump said he wore masks “when needed” but mocked Joseph R. Biden Jr. for regularly wearing masks in public.

“President Trump, you have begun to increasingly question the effectiveness of masks as a disease preventer, and in fact, recently you have cited the issue of waiters touching their masks and touching plates. Are you questioning —” “No, I think masks are OK. You have to understand, if you look, I mean, I have a mask right here. I put a mask on, you know, when I think I need it. Tonight as an example, everybody’s had a test, and you’ve had social distancing and all of the things that you have to — but I wear masks when needed. When needed, I wear masks.” “OK, let me ask —” “I don’t wear masks like him — every time you see him, he’s got a mask. He could be speaking 200 feet away from — he shows up with the biggest mask I’ve ever seen.” “Masks make a big difference. His own head of the C.D.C. said if we just wore masks between now — if everybody wore masks in social distance between now and January, we’d probably save up to 100,000 lives. It matters.” “And they’ve also said the opposite.” “And no serious person said the opposite. No serious person.” “Dr. Fauci. Dr. Fauci said they didn’t.” “He did not say the opposite.” “He said very strongly, masks are not good. Then he changed his mind, he said masks are good. I’m OK with masks.”

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President Trump said he wore masks “when needed” but mocked Joseph R. Biden Jr. for regularly wearing masks in public.CreditCredit...Doug Mills/The New York Times

“He said, ‘It is what it is,’” Mr. Biden said, referring to Mr. Trump’s reaction when the country’s death toll from the virus surpassed 100,000 in May (the number is now over 200,000). “It is what it is, because you are who you are,” Mr. Biden said.

When Mr. Trump was asked about his statements regarding the availability of a vaccine before the election — which directly contradict his own health experts who say it will most likely not be publicly available before next summer — the president said they were wrong: “I’ve spoken to the companies and we can have it a lot sooner.”

Mr. Biden said, “We’re for a vaccine, but I don’t trust him at all and nor do you, I know you don’t. We trust the scientists.”

Credit...Eve Edelheit for The New York Times

For six months, Disney has kept tens of thousands of theme park workers on furlough with full health care benefits in hopes that a light at the end of the pandemic tunnel would appear. On Tuesday, Disney conceded that none was coming.

The company said it would eliminate 28,000 theme park jobs in the United States, or about 25 percent of its domestic resort work force.

“As heartbreaking as it is to take this action, this is the only feasible option we have in light of the prolonged impact of Covid-19 on our business, including limited capacity due to physical distancing requirements and the continued uncertainty regarding the duration of the pandemic,” Josh D’Amaro, chairman of Disney Parks, Experiences and Products, said in an email to “cast members,” which is how Disney refers to theme park workers.

About 67 percent of the layoffs will involve part-time jobs that pay by the hour. However, executives and salaried workers will be among those laid off. Disney’s theme parks in California and Florida employed roughly 110,000 before the pandemic. The job cuts, which will come from both resorts, will reduce that number to about 82,000.

Disneyland in California has remained closed because Governor Gavin Newsom has refused to allow theme parks in the state to restart operations. About 31,000 people work at the Disneyland complex and the majority are unionized and have been furloughed.

Walt Disney World in Florida reopened on a limited basis in mid-July. But attendance has been weaker than Disney expected, with concern about coronavirus safety a major factor.

Credit...Bryan Anselm for The New York Times

As New York City begins allowing indoor dining at 25 percent capacity on Wednesday, its neighbor across the Hudson River offers a preview of what may be in store for struggling restaurants.

Restaurants in New Jersey are three weeks ahead of New York in offering indoor dining, also at reduced capacity. But with a 25 percent cap on indoor dining, some restaurant owners said the costs and the staffing levels needed to provide a safe restaurant experience outweighed the benefits.

“We can’t cover our bills at 25 percent,” said, Jeanne Cretella, the president of Landmark Hospitality, a restaurant group. She has the Liberty House restaurant in Jersey City and Felina in suburban Ridgewood. “And we are at a point where we’re starting to get a little nervous once outside dining is no longer possible.”

During a summer of struggle, expansive outdoor seating options and takeout buoyed some restaurants that still had to cover rent and other expenses. It remains to be seen whether limited-capacity dining rooms can entice customers who are concerned about the coronavirus, or can make up for diminished outdoor dining as fall fades into winter.

The National Restaurant Association has estimated that one in six restaurants nationwide have already closed down either long-term or for good during the pandemic, and restaurant industry groups in New York and New Jersey predict more hard times ahead.

In New Jersey, where officials have said that no cases have been linked to indoor dining, pressure is mounting on Gov. Philip D. Murphy to raise occupancy limits to match those of most parts of New York, Pennsylvania and Connecticut, where dining rooms can be half-full.

Officials in New York City continued to scramble on Wednesday to quell growing clusters of the coronavirus in several neighborhoods in Brooklyn and Queens, as the seven-day average rate of positive test results citywide ticked slightly upward to 1.46 percent, from 1.38 percent reported on Tuesday.

The uptick comes as the city also tries to fully reopen its public schools for in-person learning this week.

“It’s crucial to bringing back more jobs and helping businesses to survive,”Mayor Bill de Blasio said of indoor dining on Wednesday. “But health and safety, as always, come first.”

The mayor said that he personally preferred to continue dining outdoors until the weather cools.

Shortly afterward, Gov. Andrew M. Cuomo of New York emphasized that local officials should focus on enforcing compliance with safety rules before activities such as indoor dining in New York City were scaled back, noting that closing down establishments would cause “significant economic damage.”

“We have escalating actions that we take, but do step one first: Enforce the mask compliance, issue a ticket,” he said. “And if that doesn’t work, yes, then we’re going to have to take more serious actions.”

Credit...Sergei Gapon/Agence France-Presse — Getty Images

A former president and opposition politician in Ukraine, Petro O. Poroshenko, announced on Wednesday that he had tested positive for the coronavirus amid a flurry of virus-related disruptions to Ukrainian politics.

The Parliament said on Wednesday that it had canceled plenary sessions until Oct. 20 because of rising infections. The speaker, Dmytro Razumkov, said at least 10 members of Parliament tested positive before the shutdown.

Cases ticked up in Ukraine during summer holiday travel, because of lax observance of mask-wearing and social-distancing rules, and after schools opened last month.

Mr. Poroshenko, who assumed the presidency after a pro-Western popular uprising in 2014, has diabetes, a risk factor for complications. The diagnosis will remove him from campaigning ahead of local elections next month. Mr. Poroshenko said in a statement posted on social media that the positive test was “very untimely” because of the campaign and that he would self-isolate at home.

After a strict lockdown in Ukraine ended in June, the country switched to what authorities called “adaptive measures,” closing some businesses and encouraging social distancing and wearing masks.

Mr. Poroshenko, who now leads an opposition party, had criticized the government’s decision to ease lockdowns in June, for fear that it would lead to a second wave of the virus.

Before catching the virus over the summer, Yulia Tymoshenko, a populist former prime minister, had last spring criticized government lockdowns from the opposite perspective, saying they went too far and infringed on personal freedoms.

Ukraine has reported an average of 3,488 new cases daily over the past seven days.

Credit...Gianfranco Tripodo for The New York Times

As Spain struggles to cope with a second wave of the virus, its capital, Madrid, the epicenter of the latest outbreak, has locked down about 1 million people in 45 neighborhoods.

But those areas, where registered cases per 100,000 inhabitants have exceed 1,000, are for the most part poorer areas of Madrid, outside the city center. The renewed lockdown measures include the closure of public spaces like parks and restricted hours for bars and restaurants, leaving empty streets and struggling businesses.

By contrast in the city center, life goes on as normal as it can in a pandemic, with masked shoppers on the streets and customers keeping social distance as they eat and drink at tapas bars and restaurants until late at night.

The sharp difference between the two Madrids underlines how the coronavirus is hitting the most economically vulnerable districts of the capital disproportionately hard.

The one million people living in the neighborhoods that are now locked down are increasingly chafing at the restrictions, especially since they can see that residents of affluent areas are free to travel most places they like.

“This health crisis has nothing to do with a way of life, but a lot to do with people’s living conditions,” said Patricia Estevan, a doctor. “If you share a tiny apartment, and travel across the city on public transport every day to work as a supermarket cashier or cleaner, that is not a choice of life but an economic necessity.”

On Wednesday, the central government was hoping to push through new nationwide lockdown rules and force Madrid to drop its strategy of localized restrictions.

Credit...Mark Lennihan/Associated Press

Relatives of people killed by the virus in the United States are organizing a national day of mourning for victims and survivors of the pandemic, to be held in Washington on Sunday, Oct. 4.

The event reflects grass roots efforts that are gaining momentum around the country to acknowledge the losses experienced by thousands of families. At least 205,859 people have died from the virus in the United States as of Tuesday, with hundreds more added every day. Infectious disease experts warn that the way things are going, the death toll could surpass 300,000 by the end of the year.

The ceremony, called the National Covid-19 Remembrance, will involve a service held in the Ellipse, a park directly south of the White House. Organizers say the socially distanced event will include a moment of silence led by faith leaders, live and recorded musical performances and the installation of 20,000 empty chairs on the Ellipse, each one representing ten or more lives lost during the pandemic. The singer Dionne Warwick, a former United States ambassador of health, is scheduled to host the ceremony.

The mobilization for the ceremony comes as President Trump has been trying to play down the impact of the virus, claiming it “affects virtually nobody.” As they call on political leaders to do more to curb the spread of the virus, organizers say they are drawing inspiration from previous remembrances for victims of gun violence, of the AIDS epidemic and of terror attacks.

“The lack of recognition has compounded people’s grief and trauma,” said Chris Kocher, executive director of Covid Survivors for Change, an organization created in June that is leading the remembrance effort. “We want to give folks a space where their loved ones can be honored and remembered.”

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Bale on Tottenham start: I'm not completely ready yet. I'm trying to get in shape
Ex-Barca coach Sethien can take over at Palmeiras
Fonseca about 2:1 with young boys: Gave a break to some. Now Roma will focus on Milan
Highlight of the month: the Rangers forward scored from 50 meters (the farthest goal in the history of the Europa League). Gerrard says he's never seen anything more beautiful 😍
Mourinho on 3:0 with LASK: Difficult opponent, but Tottenham played so that the victory seemed easy